Antarctica Expedition : Post #13 - November 3, 2012

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Antarctica Nov 3

Cape Evans/Scott's Hut

Robert Falcon Scott of the British Antarctic Expedition aspired to be the first person to reach the South Pole. His first attempt was in 1901, when he traveled on the ship, Discovery, and built the Discovery Hut in McMurdo Sound.

Since the Discovery was trapped at sea and it was extremely cold and windy, Captain Scott felt that this was not the ideal place to house the expedition. In 1911 he returned and established a base in Cape Evans. This elaborate hut was fabricated in England and carried on the Terra Nova ship along with 25 other polar explorers.

 
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It had an attached stable for 19 Siberian horses and room for some husky sleigh dogs.

 
 

The hut was insulated by sewing seaweed into a quilt and inserting it between the inner and outer walls of the hut. It was lit by gas and coal was burned for heat that was vented through the stove in the kitchen.

 
 

It seems like the Heinz family could have been one of the sponsors.

 
 

On November 1, 1911 the men left Camp Evans for their journey to the South Pole with dog sleds, ponies and motorized vehicles. On the way many died and unfortunately, when Scott arrived on Jan 18, 1912 he discovered that he had just missed being first by 2 weeks! Roald Amundsen of Norway had been there on Jan 4.

When they left the Pole, they were freezing, exhausted, disappointed, and sick with scurvy. Setting up a temporary camp on March 11, they encountered a blizzard and all froze to death. On November 12, a rescue team discovered the remaining men frozen, still in their sleeping bags.

Scott's Hut was very well equipped and everything was left as it was in 1912.

 
 
Leisure Activities

Leisure Activities

Warm Clothes

Warm Clothes

 
Family Photos

Family Photos

 

Some hearty food for a long summer's stay...

 
Salt was left on the table

Salt was left on the table

 
Penguin

Penguin

Seals

Seals

Penguin Eggs

Penguin Eggs

Salt used a preservatives

Salt used a preservatives

There was a full dark room, which used glass plates for records of their expedition. Extensive biological and chemical research was done.
 
 
 
Dark Room

Dark Room

 
Chemical Testing

Chemical Testing

Medicine, in case of illness

Medicine, in case of illness

It is amazing that these men attempted such a feat in 1911. Antarctica is a harsh environment and extremely difficult to explore. Blizzards appear sporadically. The cold thin air is so much colder with the addition of the wind chill factor, which is always listed as part of the temperature.

Today is a pretty warm day here. 12.2 degrees with a wind chill of -2.5 degrees.

The South Pole is -49 degrees with a wind chill, which cannot be measured.

After exploring Scott's Hut, we went to the Barne Glacier. The winds were so strong that if we did not have crampons on, we would have slid away on the ice.

But anything for a good picture!!!

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Posted by Diane Tuft

Antarctica Expedition : Post #19 - November 12, 2012

Saturday, November 17, 2012

Antarctica Nov 12

 The South Pole!!

We are finally going to the South Pole where we will be met by Paul Sullivan to give us an extensive tour of the facilities.

Besides being very interested in the research being done at the South Pole, I am also interested in the differences in light between the South Pole and McMurdo.

The South Pole is 700km due south from McMurdo and has the purest air in the world. It is an ideal place to study the atmosphere, galaxies, and small particles known as neutrinos.

Bo

We check in at building 140 with all of our ECW gear (our orange bags that carry our emergency equipment in case we need to stay over at the South Pole).

 
Boarding our C-130 at 8:15AM to go to the South Pole

Boarding our C-130 at 8:15AM to go to the South Pole

Our pilots

Our pilots

 
 
The seats are on the sides leaving room for cargo in the center

The seats are on the sides leaving room for cargo in the center

Equipped with a toilet for women...just pull the curtain for privacy

Equipped with a toilet for women...just pull the curtain for privacy

 
View of take-off from the window

View of take-off from the window

 

The flight to the Pole was over the Trans Antarctic Mountain range, offering amazing aerial views

 
 
 
 

Approaching the Pole was extraordinary… Offering the first glimpse of the crystal blue sky that exists at the Pole

 
 
 
 

The South Pole Station has been rebuilt and is both functional and attractive.

The Station houses science research, housing, a post office, store, lounge, dining, and offices. The weather never reaches 0 degrees so being inside most of the time is essential. Today it was a mild day at -37degrees with a wind chill of -64 degrees.

 
The science offices

The science offices

 
Liquid nitrogen to keep the outside dome from fogging

Liquid nitrogen to keep the outside dome from fogging

Sky camera that photographs the sky through the dome ceiling

Sky camera that photographs the sky through the dome ceiling

A little tropical fantasy

A little tropical fantasy

The dining room where we had real ice cream (no real ice cream served at McMurdo)

The dining room where we had real ice cream (no real ice cream served at McMurdo)

Our first visit was to the ARO (Atmospheric Research Organization), which is part of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)... It is here that the atmosphere is analyzed. The South Pole has the purest air in the world and therefore it is an ideal location to measure UV light, ozone depletion, and the composition of various atmospheres around the world in relationship to the atmosphere in the South Pole, which is extremely pure

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Not even a snowmobile can come within this distance

Not even a snowmobile can come within this distance

The atmospheric measurements are measured without any interference due to pollution…

It looks like CO2 is rising all over the world. One of the reasons is that the earth is getting warmer and when the soil defrosts. The earth releases Carbon, which will be used by microorganisms that will metabolize the Carbon and release CO2 into the atmosphere. The increase in CO2 will warm the earth.

The next facility is the home of the Ice Cube Project. This project focused on detecting invisible uncharged particles called neutrinos. A neutrino can travel through the earth from the North to the South Pole. There are neutrinos everywhere including the atmosphere and the mapping of them is of great scientific interest.

 
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The Ice Cube project consists of drilling 86, 2 Kilometer deep holes in the ground. The holes were spread over 1 square Kilometer. In each hole, a cable with 56 DOM's was suspended. The hole was then filled up with water, making the entire underground space a 1 Square Kilometer Ice Cube.

Diagram of the Underground Ice Cube
The locations are under the snow and only marked by flags

The locations are under the snow and only marked by flags

Diagram of the Underground Ice Cube

Diagram of the Underground Ice Cube

The collision of a neutrino with a proton or neutron causes another particle to be released (muon). The muon will then travel in the same path as the neutrino. This collision causes energy to be released so that the scientists can track the path of the neutrino.

The DOM captures the energy that is released by this collision and transmits this information to be read on a computer.

 

 
 
 
 
 
The light from this collision is read on the computer

The light from this collision is read on the computer

 

The last facility we visited was the 10 Meter South Pole Telescope.

This telescope measures in the microwave, millimeter wave and sub millimeter wave region of the electromagnetic wave spectrum. It can find hundreds of massive clusters of distant galaxies.

The atmosphere at the South Pole is thin and extremely cold which eliminates water vapor.  Water vapor can emit radiation, which can interfere with incoming astronomical signals.

This is a detailed view of the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) or the radiant light left over from the Big Bang (13.5 Billion years ago). This photograph is from 400,000 after the Big Bang. Because light takes so long to reach the Earth, the telescope can show what happened in the past in the universe.

Inside the telescope

Inside the telescope

We then went to the geographical South Pole. This is where all GPS is measured from… the South Pole is 90 degrees. Of course we walked around the Pole so we could be in all time zones in a few seconds!
The South Magnetic Pole is approximately 600 miles north in the Southern Ocean

The South Magnetic Pole is approximately 600 miles north in the Southern Ocean

The ceremonial South Pole

The ceremonial South Pole

I did take some photographs of the snowdrifts. The snow is so pure, fine, dry, and devoid of any impurities that the snowflakes do not reflect and refract the light as would if the snowflake were in another location. The snow is very smooth and gives an unrealistic view of the ripples in the snow.
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These are color photographs

These are color photographs

It is a strange feeling to be at the bottom of the world where all points point North.

 
 
 

Posted by Diane Tuft